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Types of Doctors and What They Do

Batul Nafisa Baxamusa
There are different types of doctors who treat various medical conditions according to their specialization. If you are aspiring to be a doctor and want to know more about the career options, then the following story will give you a brief idea about the different fields of medicine.
Medicine is a career that elicits respect and high esteem from people from all walks of life. A doctor saves lives, helps new life to come into the world, and gives hope to the ill and distraught. Many aspire to become doctors to help the sick in getting rid of their maladies.

Medicine is one of the most sought-after and prestigious professions in the world. It is also one of the top-paying jobs. You can also contribute to the society and have a stable financial future by becoming a doctor!

Some General Medical Experts

Family Practitioner/General Physician - Friendly neighborhood doctor who provides treatment for non-emergency conditions.

Internist/Internal Medicine Doctor - Specializes in adult medicine, prevention, and treatment of adult diseases.

Emergency Doctor - Offers medical services in the emergency room (ER) and are on call 24/7.
Hospitalist - Looks after patients who are hospitalized.

Pain Management/Palliative Care Specialist - Helps in reducing the suffering and ameliorating the quality of life of the patients who experience pain.

Infectious Disease Specialist - Studies and treats diseases that are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites.
General Pediatrician - Studies and treats general medical problems in infants, children, and adolescents.

Critical/Intensive-care Specialist - Studies, diagnoses, and treats life-threatening conditions requiring organ support and invasive monitoring.

Geriatrician - Provides treatment for the diseases and health problems related to geriatrics or old people.
Anesthesiologist - Studies and administers anesthesia during surgical procedures.

Surgeons - Performs surgeries related to different sub-specialties of medicine.


Cardiologist - Carries out diagnosis and treats diseases related to heart and blood vessels.

Pediatric Cardiologist - Diagnoses and treats congenital or acquired heart diseases in infants.

Interventional Cardiologist - Provides catheter-based treatments for heart diseases.
Vascular Medicine Specialist - Provides treatment for vascular diseases related to lymphatics, arteries and veins.

Cardiac Electrophysiologist - Monitors and treats electrical activity of the heart and abnormal heart rhythm.

Nuclear Cardiologist - Implements techniques related to nuclear medicine for diagnosing and treating various cardiac diseases.
Cardiovascular Surgeon - Implements surgical and invasive techniques to deal with cardiovascular diseases.

Pediatric Cardiologist - Treats infants, children and adolescents who have cardiac problems.

Non-invasive Cardiologist - Conducts non-invasive tests for diagnosing problems of cardiac problems.


Endocrinologist or Hormone Doctor - Conducts diagnosis and treatment of disorders, and imbalances of the endocrine system and their glands.

Pediatric Endocrinologist - Treats children inflicted with imbalance of hormones and related disorders.


Urologist - Studies, detects and treats problems related to kidneys, urinary system and urinary tract infections of both male and female.

Gastroenterologist - Deals with problems in the gastrointestinal tract and its organs like stomach, liver, mouth esophagus, gall bladder, bile ducts, intestines, pancreas, anus, etc.
Pediatric Gastroenterologist - Treats developmental issues and problems of the digestive system and allied organs in children.
Gastrologist - Specializes in the treatment of diseases and study of the structure and functions of stomach.

Hepatologist - Studies and treats diseases that affect the liver.
Pediatric Hepatologist - Studies and treats chronic and congenial diseases of liver in children.

Nephrologist - Studies, diagnoses, and treats kidney diseases and ailments.
Pediatric Nephrologist - Studies, diagnoses, and provides treatment for kidney diseases in children.

Colon/Rectal Surgeon - Deals with surgeries for correcting disorders in the colon, rectal and anal areas.


Andrologist - Diagnoses and treats disorders related to the male reproductive system.

Gynecologist - Studies and treats diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system.

Obstetrician/Gynecologists - Expert in childbirth, C-sections, gynecological surgeries like hysterectomy, surgical removal of ovarian tumors, PAP smears, etc.
Urogynecologist - Treats problems and dysfunctions in the pelvic floor area in women.

Gynecologic Oncologist - Detects and treats cancers related to the female reproductive organs.
Reproductive Endocrinologist/Fertility Specialist - Treats problems like infertility, sexual disorders, menopause, hormonal imbalances, etc.

Sexual Medicine Practitioner - Deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of sex related disorders and help in maintaining a healthy sexual life.


Medical Oncologist/Clinical Oncologist - Diagnoses and treats cancer.

Pediatric Oncologist - Undertakes study, diagnoses, and treatment for children who suffer from cancer.

Surgical Oncologist - Conducts surgical treatment and removal of cancer.


Allergist - Treats different kinds of allergies and immune system disorders.

Immunologist - Studies all aspects of the immune system and treats diseases related to it.

Pediatric Immunologist - Deals with the immune system diseases and disorders in children.


Diagnostician - Studies the medical reports and symptoms of a patient to diagnose the disease.

Medical Microbiologist - Deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases that are caused by microorganisms.

Pathologist - Studies abnormalities in living organisms, diagnoses medical problems from tissue samples like blood, skin, etc.
Cytopathologist/Cell Pathologists - Diagnoses diseases by studying cells.

Paleopathologist - Undertakes the study of ancient diseases.
Parasitologist - Conducts study of parasites, their biology and pathology, as well as the parasitic diseases.

Epidemiologist/Disease Detectives - Studies the causes and patterns of diseases in a population, and also strives to preventing them from occurring again.


Pulmonologist - Diagnoses and treats lung conditions and critical care patients admitted in the ICU and those that require ventilator support.

Thoracic Surgeon/Cardiothoracic Surgeon - Operates organs like heart, lungs, esophagus, and other organs in the chest.
Thoracic Oncologist - Detects and treats cancer of the lungs, esophagus, and chest.

Pediatric Pulmonologist - Treats problems and disorders of lungs in children or adolescents.


Hematologist - Studies, diagnoses and treats problems of blood and its diseases.

Pediatric Hematologist - Diagnoses and treats blood related diseases and disorders in children.

Hematologist Oncologist - Studies, diagnoses, and treats cancer of the blood cells.


Medical Geneticist - Carries out studies, tests, treatments, and counsels patients about genetic diseases and disorders.

Pediatric Geneticist - Conducts genetic assessment to determine if a child has acquired any genetic syndrome and suggests treatment for the same.


Perinatologist - An expert in caring and treating high risk pregnancies.

Neonatologist - Provides medical care to premature and critically ill newborns.

Brain/Nervous System

Clinical Neurophysiologist - Diagnoses conditions and disorders affecting the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system with the help of electrophysiological tests.

Neurosurgeon - Treats diseases and condition of central and peripheral nervous system including the brain.
Pediatric Neurosurgeon - Provides surgical medical assistance to treat diseases or disorders of the nervous system in children.

Neurologist - Conducts study, diagnosis, and treatment of brain for conditions like seizures, strokes, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, etc.
Pediatric Neurologist - Studies, diagnoses and treats neurological problems in children.

Neuroradiologist - Utilizes neuroimaging equipment MRI, CT scans, etc. to diagnose the problems of the nervous system.


Orthopedist - Undertakes repair and replacement of broken bones and treats problems of bones, ligaments, joints and tendons.

Orthopedic Surgeon - Provides surgical treatment to skeletal system of the human body, broken, fractured or arthritis struck bones.
Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon - Diagnoses and treats musculoskeletal and bone development problems in children.

Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Surgeon - Diagnoses and treats musculoskeletal problems in the foot and ankle area.

Rheumatologist - Treats rheumatism, vasculitis, autoimmune disorders, etc.
Pediatric Rheumatologist - Diagnoses and provides treatment for the rheumatic diseases in children.

Physiatrist/Rehabilitation Physicians - Treats patients with illness or injuries affecting their nerves, muscles and bones, and also focuses on rehabilitation.

Podiatrists - Studies and treats disorders and diseases of the foot and ankle.
Pediatric Podiatrist - Diagnoses, treatment and prevention of foot related diseases and problems in infants and adolescents.

Hand Surgeon - Diagnoses, treats and prevents problems related to the structure of hand, forearms and wrist.
Chiropractor - Though not a medical doctor, he/she is an alternative therapist who treats and prevents the neuromusculoskeletal system disorders and their impact on overall well-being.


Diagnostic Radiologist - Interprets X-rays, sonograms, mammograms, CT scans, MRI scans, etc. and diagnoses the disease or problem.

Radiologists - Studies medical use of X-rays or other imaging technologies for diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Pediatric Radiologist - Studies, diagnoses and interprets the X-rays and other imaging technologies for children.
Nuclear Medicine Physician - Implements tracers and radioactive materials for study, diagnosis and therapy.

Radiation Oncologist - Utilizes high energy radiation therapy to destroy cancerous cell and stops them from reproducing.


Audiologist - Treats patients with hearing loss or hearing damage problems.

Pediatric Audiologist - Helps deaf or mute children to learn to communicate and treats hearing problems.
Otolaryngologist/ENT specialist - Treats ear, nose and throat, as well as ailments of the head and the neck.

Pediatric Otolaryngologist - Conducts study, diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, head, neck, etc. in children.


Ophthalmologist - Specializes in eye and vision care, along with simple and complex eye surgeries.

Pediatric Ophthalmologist - Helps in vision development, treatment and surgeries in children.

Orthoptist - Carries out correction of defective eye movement, ordination and binocular vision problems.
Retina Specialist - Treats disorders of the vitreous body and retina of the eye.

Ophthalmic Plastic Surgeon - Conducts plastic surgeries for treating abnormalities and deformities of eyelids, tear drains, orbits, etc.


General Dentist - Looks after dental health, teeth and dental problems like cavities, bleeding gums, etc.

Pediatric Dentist/Pedodontist - Looks after the dental health and oral hygiene of children.

Periodontist - Treats problems related to periodontics and the supporting structures of teeth like roots, gums and bones.
Orthodontist - Diagnoses and treats oral cavity problems, dental malocclusions, designs and fabricates dental appliances to realign the teeth and jaws.

Endodontist - Undertakes treatment for root canal, dental trauma, cracked teeth and endodontic surgeries.
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon - Carries out surgeries for treatment of diseases, trauma and problems of the jaws, head, face and neck.

Prosthodontist - Deals with treatment, restoration and replacement of teeth, implants, occlusion rehabilitation, etc.


Dermatologist - Provides treatment for skin, its structure, functions, diseases and its appendages like nails, hair, sweat glands.

Hair Restoration and Transplant Surgeon - Carries out hair transplant and restoration surgeries.

Plastic Surgeon - Performs cosmetic surgery to repair skin and structural problems.
Pediatric Plastic Surgeon - Carries out plastic re-constructive, correctional, and cosmetic surgeries on children.

Craniofacial Surgeon - Operates on bone, skin, muscle, teeth, etc. to remove deformities.

Dermatopathologist - Diagnoses and studies the cutaneous diseases by observing the samples under microscope.

Psychological Medicine

General Psychiatrist - Specializes in the study, diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and behavioral disorders.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist - Treats children and adolescents for mental and behavioral disorders.

Addiction Psychiatrist - Specializes in study, diagnosis and treatment of people who have mental disorders related to any kind of addiction.
Forensic Psychiatrist - Deals with the science related to crimes and acts as a link between psychiatry and law.

Consult Liaison Psychiatrist - Usually works in a hospital and acts as an interface between psychiatry and medicine to treat the patients.

Geriatric Psychiatrist - Studies, evaluates and treats mental illnesses and problems of old people.
Neuropsychiatrist - Specializes in dealing with both brain and mental health.

Sports Psychiatrist - Helps to diagnose and treat the behavioral and psychological issues of athletes and sports related people.

HIV Psychiatrists - Provides mental health care and counseling to people affected by HIV.

Other Specializations

Adolescent Medicine Practitioner - Provides medical care to adolescents.

Physical Medicine and Rehab Practitioner - Helps in restoring the functional ability of the physically impaired people.

Preventive Medicine Physician - Takes precautionary measures and treatments to prevent diseases and injuries.
Sports Medicine Practitioner - Looks after the physical fitness of a sportsperson and treats injuries.

Sleep Medicine Practitioner - Provides treatment for sleep disorder through therapy and medicines.

Bariatrician -Treats weight loss and obesity.

Animals and Birds

Veterinarian - Helps in treating and maintaining the health of animals and birds.
Thus, there are many specialties of medicine and each specialty has different types of doctors and surgeons, earning a varied range of salaries. Apart from Allopathy, you can also check out fields of alternative medicine. Some options of alternative medicine are homeopathy, osteopathy, Ayurveda, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, naturopathy, holistic medicine, etc. Remember, you need to understand your area of interest and then choose your line of specialty as a career.