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Surgeon Job Description

Mayuri Kulkarni
A detailed information about job description of a surgeon can help you know about the duties of these professionals. Read on for a brief insight into the various important factors related to this job profile.
A surgeon can be defined as a doctor, who operates a body to cure or prevent a disease, fix an injury, or to solve a health problem. Thus, we can say that he is a medical practitioner, an expert at performing operations on the body. The job responsibilities of these professionals depend upon the area of expertise he/she has.


Surgeons are physicians who have the expertise in using invasive, non-invasive, and minimally invasive procedures to treat physical conditions and injuries.
While all are qualified to practice general surgery, there are many of them who undergo additional training in any specialty surgical field. Salaries for these professionals tend to be higher, in comparison to that of general surgeons.

General Surgeons

These professionals have advanced training in handling patients of any age with conditions related to any area of the body. They mainly deal with injuries and conditions related to neck, abdomen, endocrine systems, etc.

Orthopedic Surgeons

They are specialists in treating the conditions, illnesses, and injuries affecting the bones, muscles, joints, ligaments, nerves, and tendons. These professionals might further opt for specialization in pediatric or adult orthopedics.

Neurological Surgeons

These professionals have specialization in treating any disorder affecting any part of the nervous system, whether it is the central, autonomic, or peripheral system. They tend to earn higher than the other counterparts owing to the complexities involved in handling the conditions related to the nervous system.

Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeons

These professionals have an expertise in using surgical techniques to repair, reconstruct, or replace any defective or damaged tissue. They are highly paid and are in great demand nowadays owing to an increasing number of people undergoing such operations for enhancing their appearance.

Vascular Surgeons

They are experts in treating complications affecting the vascular system (veins, arteries, and lymphatic systems). They mainly use surgical intervention techniques to open arterial blockages and manage aneurysms.


They handle any condition affecting the eyes and vision. They are experts in carrying out procedures such as corneal surgery, cataract operations, ocular oncology procedures, etc.

Thoracic Surgeons

These are responsible for treating conditions affecting organs inside the chest, i.e., the heart and lungs; for example, lung cancer, coronary artery ailments, abnormalities in the heart, etc.


They diagnose and treat patients with genitourinary disorders.

Pediatric Surgeons

They are experts in treating conditions and illnesses affecting newborns till adolescents. They are either trained in neonatal or fetal surgery.


To become a surgeon, one has to study rigorously in a medical school for a minimum of 6 - 8 years. Before obtaining the surgical education, one must obtain a degree of Doctor in Medicine. Students who want to specialize in a certain field need to obtain the required education.
Mentioned here are some of the important job duties of these professionals:
  • Learn the medical history of the patient; make sure if he has certain allergies, and foresee the results expected after the operation.
  • Depending upon the study of the physical condition of a patient, he has to decide which procedure should be followed to operate.
  • Before starting with the surgery, he should make sure that the operation theater is well-equipped with surgical instruments required.
  • He should provide all the information and risks associated with the operation to the patient.
  • He should manage, plan, and schedule the same after studying the physical condition of the patient.
  • After completion of the surgery, he should prepare the case history and provide all the necessary after-surgery care to the patient.
Mentioned earlier are some of the important duties performed by these professionals. A surgeon is required to have good motor skills to use the surgical instruments. Moreover, he should also have good tolerance levels since some surgeries may last for many hours.
The most important qualities that are necessary include leadership, good decision-making power, and the ability to work in emergency situations under tremendous pressure. Regardless of the specialty, these are among some of the highly paid medical practitioners.
Thus, if you are studying in high school and aspire to become one, then make a thorough search for a good medical institute and earn the required degree and experience.